Eco-Socialism is the view that the logic of capitalism is inconsistent with maintaining a livable climate and an ecosystem that can sustain rather than degrade biodiversity. Eco-socialists believe that capitalism is the fundamental cause of inequality and social marginalization, especially insofar as these phenomena intersect with the exploitation of the environment that has corresponded to the development of globalized capitalist industry and exchange. 

Some eco-socialists refer the origins of the ideology to Marx himself, viewing Marx’s thought as fundamentally ecological. Alternatively, the origins of eco-socialism have been attributed to the writings of William Morris, the nineteenth century author, designer, and activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. Many thinkers and activists from across the globe have expressed affinities with eco-socialism.

One common critique of eco-socialism is that it is an impractical solution given the urgency of the climate crisis. Eco-socialists respond that capitalism has thus far failed provide a viable path forward and that any truly ecologically sustainable future will require an eco-socialist restructuring of society.

Defined by Andrew Michael Gorin